Public Summary

Public summary for Entulu – Melatai FMU

The Forest Management Plan (FMP) for Entulu – Melatai FMU under Forest Timber Licence No. T/3476 was approved by Forest Department Sarawak on 9th November, 2018 (Ref: (84)JHS/600-3/7/102/ Jld.2),  the summary of the approved FMP is as follow:

1. Background of Management Area

Entulu – Melatai FMU has a total licensed area of 63,890 Ha, forming partial Baleh Protected Forest which falls inside the Baleh Hydro Project area.  The FMU area covers a total area of 55,112 Ha., fallen within HOB and divided into 25 coupes.

The Entulu – Melatai FMU was previously under Forest Timber Licence No. T/3155 which was first issued to Hak Holdings Sdn. Bhd. on 3rd December, 1985 and subsequently transferred to Up-Active Sdn. Bhd. In October, 2001 and followed by Interglobal Empire Sdn. Bhd. (T/3476).

2. Physical Features and boundaries

The altitudes of Entulu – Melatai is ranging from 230 m at the lower hill areas to 1,800 m at highest spot at the Southwest tip above sea level next to Indonesia (Kalimantan) – Sarawak International Boundary.

 Entulu – Melatai FMU is mainly covers by Terrain Class II and III, only few areas have steep dissected terrain with slope greater than 35o or Terrain Class IV which is too steep for conventional bulldozers based logging.   The region has a tropical type of climate affected by the monsoon seasons, which is generally hot, wet and humid throughout the year.

The locality map of Entulu – Melatai FMU

3. Management Objectives

Our management objectives are:

optimum utilization of the forest resources;

regulation of the harvest on a sustained yield basis with strict adherence to RIL practice;

regeneration of the forest and improvement of the stocking of commercial species by suitable silvicultural methods;

Monitoring the forest growth through forest mensuration and stand assessment besides ensuring the harvested volume of timber is not in excess of pre-assessment of the residual stand;

To adopt multiple-uses of forest to serve social, economic and environmental purposes on a sustainable basis within estimated budget to achieve economic viability;

Enhancing carbon storage in the forest ecosystem through minimal disturbance of forest;  

Minimum disturbance or protection on soil and water and least environmental impacts to protect ecological diversity and resources;

Long term conservation and sustainable use of wildlife and HCVF areas in compliance with DF Circular 6/99;

To enhance local communal relationship and stress on the social benefits of forest to local communities, (if any); and

To respect worker’s right and ensure safe work place.

4. Forest Zoning

  • Production area – Mixed Hill Dipterocarp Forests for the production of mainly timber.
  • Conservation area – undisturbed and partially disturbed which would serve as reference as continuous in research studies, refuge and breeding sites, as well as timber tree seed production and conservation of genetic diversity.
  • International Boundary Buffer Zone
  • Inundated Area (Areas affected by the proposed Baleh Hydro-Electric Project)

Types of Zones and Sizes in Hectares:

Area Type of Zones Area (Ha) Percentage (%)
  Production Forests 47,626 74.5%
  Terrain IV 2,237 3.5%
  Buffer Zones 326 0.5%
FMU Area Kerangas 393 0.6%
  HCVF 700 1.1%
  International Boundary Buffer Zones 3,830 6%
Sub-total   55,112 86.2%
Area Excluded Areas Affected by Baleh HEP 2,091 3.3%
From FMU Conservation Area 5,290 8.3%
  100 m HEP Buffer Zones 1,397 2.2%
Sub-total   8,778 13.8%
Total Licensed Area   63,890 100%

5. Forest Resources and Forest Research:

  • More than 20 PSPs were established within the FMU area.  The objective for the establishment of PSP is to determine the Annual Allowable Cut (AAC) to sustainably manage this FMU area.   
  • The calculation of AAC was based on the PSP result for growth simulation.
  • A repeated simulation runs have been carried out using different harvesting scenarios and their results were analyzed in terms of sustainability with estimated harvested volume that will be achieved.
  • It has a 25-year cutting cycle with an extractable of 9 to 19 trees per Ha and an average harvestable volume of 42.2 m3/ha.
  • This calculation serves as a temporary indication of sustainable harvestable volume.
  • Identification and monitoring of Endangered, Rare and Threatened (ERT) Species and their habitats and dynamism in sustainably well managed forest area.
  • Non-Timber Forest Product (NTFP) like palm, bamboo, rattan, wild fruits and edible wild vegetable are present in the FMU.
  • Timber stock as recorded from the forest research (30 cm dbh and above) is averaged at 59 trees or 65.55 m3/ha, 30cm – 49.9cm is averaged at 43 trees or 31.63 m3/ha and 50cm and above is averaged at 16 trees or 33.92 m3/ha.
  • FMU has the total of 17 ERT species of fauna with 14 species consisting of mammals, 2 reptiles and 1 insect.
  • Rate of Annual Harvest:
  • The average of harvestable yields within the research PSP is 42.2 m3/ha, derived from high density and low density of productivity areas based on fair representation of PSPs.
  • The preliminary growth calculation of MAI is 0.4cm per year and 1.69 m3/ha/year.  The basal area is calculated as 27.05 m2/ha.
  • Allowable Cutting Area (ACA)  is 2,204.5  ha.
  • AAC is 75,725 m3 of production limit for the initial planning of this FMP.

6. Management Plan Prescriptions

  • The management abides all laws, ordinances and rules which regulate the implementation of the Forest Policy of Sarawak and to comply with the requirements of Malaysia Criteria and Indicators for Forest Management Certification (Natural Forest) [(MC&I (Natural Forest)) under the Malaysian Timber Certification Scheme (MTCS).
  • The management follows the trees felling cutting rules approved by Forest Department Sarawak.
  • The FMU adopt the Reduced Impact Logging (RIL) system using modified excavators and 100% tagging of trees harvested.
  • This FMU is divided into 25 coupes based on 25-year cutting cycle.
  • The FMP would be revised every 5 years to include and incorporate any new and practical recommendation from monitoring in order to keep the management plan on track to have an up-to-date resource data.

7. Planning of Forest Roads and Harvesting Systems

  • The construction and maintenance of roads, drainage structures and bridges in accordance with the Guidelines for Forest Road Layout.
  • Planning procedure to follow strictly the approved General Harvesting Plan (GP) and Detailed Harvesting Plan (DP) for long-term economic benefit of the FMU owner.
  • Demarcation of all boundaries such as licence, FMU, coupe year, block, area for protection and conservation would be carried out before pre- felling inspection.
  • Tree tagging of 100% enumeration for harvestable trees, protected trees, potential crop trees, mother Trees, seed fruit trees and nesting trees respectively would be done.
  • The reduced Impacting Logging (RIL) practice would involve pre-harvesting, harvesting and post harvesting planning and related activities. 
  • The monitoring and control of pre-harvesting, harvesting and post harvesting within the FMU is executed by Forestry Agencies.

8. Harvesting Operation

  • Training of forest workers in accordance with the Section 51 of the Forest Ordinance, 2015.
  • Strictly follow the RIL Guidelines in timber operation through selective cutting by using modified excavator with winch to minimize the impact to residual stand, soil and water disturbance.  This involves pre-harvesting, harvesting and post harvesting planning and related activities.
  • Adopt directional felling technique to minimal the damages to the forest.
  • Post-harvest activities include the installation of cross drains and sedimentation or silt traps and 10% sampling of post-logging assessment that including logging damage assessment and enumeration for the residue stands to established the sivilculture or mosaic planting methods for enrichment planting where necessary.
  • All harvested logs are traceable and verifiable through Chain of Custody (COC).

9. Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)

  • The EIA of this FMU was approved by the Controller of Natural Resources and Environment Board Sarawak on 23rd September, 2013.
  • To follow terms and conditions of approval in accordance with the provisions of Natural Resources and Environment Ordinance 1993 and Natural Resources & Environment (Prescribed Activities) Order, 1994.
    • The FMU is conducting Internal Environmental Compliance Audit (IECA) and External Environmental Compliance Audit (EECA) to replace Environmental Monitoring Report (EMR) to monitor the status of General Terms and Conditions and mitigations as required in the approved EIA.
  • The environmental baseline of water quality of the FMU is within the Compliance Limits (Class IIB) of the National water Quality Standards for Malaysia (NWQSM).
  • The monitoring and control was based on guidelines of pre-felling and post harvesting activities, IECA, EECA and SIA.

10. Silviculture, Forest Rehabilitation and Reforestation

  • Enrichment planting of fast growing indigenous species Kelampayan and other suitable local species to improve the timber stocking of this FMU.
  • Enrichment planting with Mosaic planting method would be conducted in those degraded areas. 
  • Climbers cutting would be done in harvested area.

11. Wildlife Management

  • Control of hunting and trespassing by strict adherence of DF 6/99 circular on wildlife conservator and improvement of gate control/guard house.
  • To instill awareness about wildlife management to forest workers.
  • Through scheduled periodic patrolling of the FMU area.
  • Appointment of Honorary Wildlife Officer to assist in wildlife conservation and monitoring purposes.

12. Identification and Management of Protected and Conservation Areas

  • Management of Protected and Conservation Areas
No. Categories Management Requirements
1. Non-Commercial or Poorly Stocked Area Low stocking area will be excluded from FMU harvesting area.
2. Permanent Waterway Riparian buffer zone as approved in EIA by NREB will be identified and demarcated with recommended width on the ground.
3. Steep Slope Steep terrain IV or slope greater than 35° as indicated in Sarawak Forestry Map B will be mapped and excluded from harvesting within Entulu – Melatai FMU.
4. Water Catchments To identify on map and demarcated on ground for protection.
5. International Boundary and Totally Protected Area Buffer zone of 1 kilometer width will be demarcated on ground for protection.
6. Critical Resource and Sites Buffer zone of width 100 meters surrounding identified critical resources and sites such as saltlick to be mapped and demarcated on ground.
7. Research Plot and Permanent Sample Plot Permanent Sample Plot (PSP) established by FMU will be protected with at least 20 m buffer surrounding the plot perimeter boundary.
8. Community Use Area and Cultural or Religious Sites (if any) Free, prior, informed and consent (FPIC) will be applied to community use area, cultural site and religious site and demarcated on ground for protection purposes.
9. Potential Tourism Area Potential ecotourism and recreational sites would be identified and demarcated on ground (if any).
10. High Conservation Value Forest (HCVF) To identify as protected area, to mark on map and demarcated on ground

13. High Conservation Value(s)

  • There are 4 out of 6 HCVs valaus as listed in the HCVF Malaysia Toolkit presence in the FMU.
  • There are 41 fauna and 41 flora threatened and endangered species found in the studied sites (HCV 1.2).
  • There are 39 endemic flora and 12 endemic fauna species (HCV 1.3).
  • Areas for critical temporal use ware identified (HCV 1.4).
  • The FMU is located within the Heart of Borneo (HoB) provisional boundary and it is a significant large landscape forest for wildlife species to exist in natural patterns of distribution. In a regional perspective, the main riverine reserves served as wildlife reservoirs and corridors with adjacent Timber Licence area within the HOB initiatives. (HCV 2).
  • Based on Forest type classification, the Mixed Dipterocarp Forest (MDF) within the FMU is divided into lowland and upper Dipterocarp forests. Both forest types are accorded as medium priority for conservation by National Conservation Strategy (NCS) List of Priority Habitat. No distinct Heath Forest (Kerangas Forest) was detected in the FMU but rather a mixture of Heath and MDF forest were detected on the surrounding ridges of steep hills (HCV 3).
  • The FMU is located within Kapit Water Catchment and the legally gazette Baleh Dam Catchment.   Terrain Classes III and IV are present within the FMU (HCV 4.1).
  • The FMU has identified riparian areas and Terrain Class IV in the FMU (HCV 4.2).
  • No history of forest fire was found within the FMU. Adjacent forest containing other HCVs is considered potentially present even though no records or data of HCVs were found during the assessment. HCVs information on surrounding areas may be available if adjacent Timber Licence areas are conducting their HCVF assessment in the future. The FMU is only surrounded by Timber Licence areas, there is no human settlement either inside or located within 3 km from the boundary (HCV 4.3).
  • No evidence of forest use by communities was found within the FMU. Being remotely located near the Kalimantan border and only surrounded by Timber Licence areas, there is no human settlement either inside or located within 3 km around the FMU boundary (HCV 5).
  • No evidence and record of critical forest use from any community was found within the FMU (HCV 6).


No. Management Recommendation Action Taken
1 Demarcation of the buffer zone along Malaysia (Sarawak) – Indonesia (Kalimantan) International Boundary A 1 km buffer zone along the Malaysian – Indonesia international boundary was marked in General Harvesting Plan (GP) and approved by Forest Department Sarawak (FDS).  
No. Monitoring Recommendation Action Taken
2 Monitoring of perimeter of buffer belt to have identification on any encroachment. Monitoring on all logging roads including the existing and old logging roads.Speed limitation of logging trucks and vehicles on the using of logging road to minimize the accidents in the FMU.
No. Management Recommendation Action Taken
3 Maintenance of the protection on protected species under forestry Rules All species (ERT) listed in the Wildlife Protection Ordinance were not allowed to fell.
4 To carry out marking on the protected trees during reduced impact logging to prevent felling accidentally. Tree for protection has been implemented in previous Coupe 3AR (planned as Coupe 1 in the recently approved GP).  
5 Measures taken in assessing endangered, rare, and threatened  species in new coupes before commencing harvesting and trees tagging of all trees to be harvested. Training on Endangered, Rare and Threatened (ERT) species was conducted by FDS at Sapphire 99 camp in July, 2019.Follow-up training on ERT was conducted by our in-house Honorary Wildlife Ranger in October, 2019.
6 A training on the workers on recognition of protected species will be further improve the identification of these species within the FMU One training session has been conducted by SFC from 8th July, 2019 to 14th July, 2019.  
7 An education on the local communities in recognizing protect sites and wildlife A briefing on the protected sites and wildlife was held in July, 2019 in the Sapphire 99 camp.Awareness training program on ERT was conducted to forest workers.
No. Monitoring Recommendation Action Taken
8 Honorary Wildlife Rangers and surveyors were instructed to monitor the presence of wildlife population in order to assess the number of these species before the commencement of forest harvesting activities.  The baseline data was collected by Mesra – Alam Consulting on the status of mammal and avifauna species with recommendation for its management.The opportunity in monitoring the presence of wildlife population has also been conducted during the Forest Resource Assessment exercise.  The assessment was done in 2016.An internal wildlife survey through patrolling was conducted by Wildlife Rangers in July 2019.A survey on the species distribution in the FMU by surveyors was conducted in July, 2019.Wildlife posters and Policy on “No Hunting” were made available in the FMU.
9 An annual assessment with data collected during monitoring. Based on the data collected in the pre-harvest, inventory has basic information on ERT of 0.75 tree per hectare recorded in Block 20 of Coupe 3AR (planned as Coupe 1 in the recently approved GP).Monitoring in previous Coupe 3AR (planned as Coupe 1 in the recently approved GP) is still in progressing.
10 The construction of guard house and gate in order to control on the hunting activities. A security gate and guards house has been constructed in the main entrance of FMU in 2018 with records of ingress and egress of workers and local communities (if any).Based on recording book, there was no local community entered into our FMU for hunting activity.
11 A Wildlife Ranger in patrolling and detecting illegal activities with reporting to Forest Department Sarawak (if any). Two (2) Wildlife Rangers were appointed for Entulu – Melatai FMU in July, 2019. More staff to be trained as Honorary Wildlife Ranger in 2020.  
12 Camera trapping system to be installed for  determination of ERT species to-date. A total of 4 camera traps has been installed in July, 2019 covers both active and post logging area, i.e. the previous Coupe 2AR (planned as Coupe 1 in the recently approved GP).Based on recently monitoring record, there were a total of 17 species has been captured through camera traps and hand held camera both in the post-harvesting Coupe 2AR and active Coupe 1, 2019.
13 In order to confirm the endemic species,  more studies need to be conducted for more details information   The assessment of flora species was also conducted during the pre-harvesting inventory work. Assessment of fauna species was conducted through hand held camera and camera trapping system in Coupe 1.Based on the HCVF Assessment done by consultant, the HCV is considered as present.Recommended that:A training session on the identification of ERT species to be maintained.A continuous monitoring the presence of wildlife especially on endemic species.


No. Management Recommendation Action Taken
14 Entulu – Melatai FMU with saltlicks in Coupe 2AR or new Coupe 1. Three (3) saltlicks have been identified by the survey crews in Coupe 2AR, new Coupes 1 and 22 and monitoring has been done.
15 A 100m x 100m of buffer zone reserve shall be marked around the saltlicks in order to prevent the visiting wildlife being interfered from normal. Demarcation of 100m x 100m on ground for saltlicks sites in previous Coupe 2AR, new Coupes 1 and 22 was done. 
16 Saltlicks shall only mark on map and demarcate on ground but there should be no signboard so as to attract the hunters. The buffer zone for saltlicks shall only be marked on map and demarcated on ground but not to put up signage for indicating the location of saltlicks sites.
17 A more accurate determination with continuous monitoring the population and diversity of wildlife is through the installation of more camera traps. A more reliance result is through collaboration with the local communities to who may know the forest well.Four (4) camera traps have been set up in the saltlicks areas and monitoring in Coupe 1.According to Honorary Wildlife Rangers, there was no poaching found in the previous Coupe 2AR.The monitoring in new coupe is still in progressing as it is an active coupe.


No. Management Recommendation Action Taken
18 A map showing the Kerangas Forest Ecosystem. The Kerangas Forest has been shown in the HCV map.  The demarcation of Kerangas is in Coupe 9.
19 A demarcation on ground and marked on map The demarcation on ground shall be done after Detailed Harvesting Plan (DP) approved by SFC.
20 Field workers will be informed for not to carry out harvesting activities and detail planning map must mark the status of protected area.   The protection status must clearly mark on the DP map.Field instruction with ground demarcation of the area is to avoid harvesting activities in the protected area.


No. Management Recommendation Action Taken
21 Establishment of inventory plots in order to assess the vegetation types to compare its unique features with similar forest type. Certain portion of the FMU is inaccessible by road.  Therefore, the survey crew is expected to carry out ground reconnaissance during the establishment of inventory plots.There is no encroachment captures during the cleaning of the existing M-2 and M-3 in July, 2019.
22 Mapping is completed and followed by demarcation on ground in active areas. Initially there are two (2) water catchments were identified within Entulu – Melatai, namely Sapphire 99 camp with nursery site and Camp 138 (temporary skid house was laying outside FMU boundary). .All water catchments have been mapped and demarcated for protection in June, 2017.Review of HCVF in 2019 shown that our FMU is located within Kapit Water Catchment and the legally gazette Baleh Dam catchment.  HCV 4.1(3) is considered present.
23 The annual monitoring of boundary and signage The boundary and signage monitoring on the two- water catchment were conducted in May 2018.Review of HCV in 2019 shows that none of the above water catchment is gazette as water catchment under Principle 9 of the MC&I (Natural Forest).


HCV Management Recommendation
4.2 Terrain Class IV area are mapped and included in DP as per GP (if any).Terrain Class IV shall also be mapped in the Comprehensive Harvesting Plan too.There will be no new skid trails inside the Terrain IV area.  To reuse the existing roads and skid trials.The Terrain IV has already been marked and mapped in the approved GP.  Therefore, DP shall follow GP for the annual coupe and also Comprehensive Harvesting Plan during the blocking.Terrain IV shall be marked and demarcated on ground with blue colour paint.The ground based bulldozers are not recommended for slope greater than 35° in slope and Low Impacts Logging (LIL) System such as yarder cable line system is recommended for harvesting, if any.
HCV Monitoring Recommendation
4.2 The monitoring is to ensure this Terrain IV area being not encroached.

14. Occupational Safety and Health

  • The importance of safety and health is clearly stated in the Occupational Safety and Health Policy dated 1st June 2016 as the basis of necessitates our commitment to comply with this requirement.
  • A joint Safety and Health Committee has been established in the FMU with objectives as below:
  • To reduce or minimize the risk of accident and ensuring a safe working environment, through limitation on the speed of logging trucks and company vehicles using the logging road.
    • To have procedure in line with all the applicable or required laws, ordinances, rules and regulations.
    • A gradually but firmly to establish the awareness of good mind set through continuous briefing and trainings.
    • FMU management will allocate budget on training and education of her forest workers in order to improve their attitude, quality of work and performance in discharging their duties safety and efficiently.

15. Social Impact Assessment (SIA)

According to SIA conducted, there was no local community issue.  However, we will concern and carried out the monitoring and enhancement measures to all our forest workers by adopting the Employer – Employee Committee  to take care of our workers.

16. Budget Allocation

In order to achieve the forest management certification, the management of Entulu – Melatai FMU has planned and allocated a total of estimate of  operations cost amounting RM33,455,800.00 for a period of 5 years from 2019 to 2023.