Chapter 10: Identification and Management of Protection Areas

Protection areas were identified based on the need for conservation.  There are 3 main fundamental for conservation will be identified such as conservation areas for protection of soil, rivers and wildlife.

The following criteria were used as reference for assessment:

  • Non-commercial or poor timber stocking area for conservation of soil and flora and fauna.
  • Site sensitive area.
  • The presence/ absence of gazetted water catchment areas.
  • Wildlife conservation area for example saltlicks, wallows and migration route.
  • Community use area.
  • Potential eco-tourism sites.
  • Potential high conservation value forests.
  • Sites of special cultural, ecological, economic or religious significance.

Potential areas identified for protection and conservation as shown in table below:

No.CategoriesManagement Requirements
1.Non-Commercial or Poorly Stocked AreaLow stocking area will be excluded from FMU harvesting area.
2.Permanent WaterwayRiparian buffer zone as approved in EIA by NREB will be identified and demarcated with recommended width on the ground.
3.Steep SlopeSteep terrain IV or slope greater than 35° as indicated in Sarawak Forest Map B will be mapped and excluded from harvesting.
4.Water CatchmentsTo identify on map and demarcated on ground for protection.
5.International Boundary and Totally Protected AreaBuffer zone of 1 kilometer width will be demarcated on ground for protection.
6.Critical Resource and SitesBuffer zone of width 100 meters surrounding identified critical resources and sites such as saltlick to be mapped and demarcated on ground.
7.Research Plot and Permanent Sample Plot (PSP)PSP established will be protected with at least 20 m buffer surrounding the plot perimeter boundary.
8.Community Use Area and Cultural or Religious Sites (if any)Free, prior, informed and Consent (FPIC) will be applied to community use area, cultural site and religious site and demarcated on ground for protection purposes.
9.Potential Tourism AreaPotential ecotourism and recreational sites would be identified and demarcated on ground (if any).
10.High Conservation Value Forest (HCVF)To identify as protected area, to mark on map and demarcated on ground

Summaries of Management and Monitoring Recommendations for HCV

Management and Monitoring Recommendations for HCV 1.2 & HCV 1.3 
  • To ensure the protection of Ficus spp., Koompassia spp. and other ERT plant species.
  • Training on identification of ERT species.
  • To carry out future floristic inventory with local authorities to identify ERT species population.
  • Strictly adhere to “No Hunting” Policy by all workers and contractors.
  • Access into the FMU and unauthorized access into FMU should be prohibited.
  • Security patrolling done periodically to prevent hunting activities.
  • Location of the ERT fauna species found should be mapped and kept confidential.
  • Native fruit trees such as Figs and other key species as food source for hornbills should not be damaged or felled.
  • New information on ERT species within the FMU should refer to relevant authorities such as SFC and FDS.
  • The population of ERT species should be monitored.
  • Pre-harvesting identification of ERT tree species should be done to prevent over harvesting of certain ERT tree species, through 100% enumeration.
  • Long-term monitoring or periodic monitoring on the ERT Fauna species population, through camera trapping system.
  • Continuous presence of security patrolling and periodic monitoring on the location of ERT Fauna species.
  • Old skid trails should be monitored and controlled to prevent easy access of unauthorized vehicle used for hunting.
Management and Monitoring Recommendations for HCV 1.4
  • Demarcate in the map saltlicks found and paint protection area as buffer zones with at least 100 m.
  • Forbidden within the 100 meters buffer zones:
    • No skid-trails are allowed.
    • No felling of trees is allowed.
    • Ban hunting.
    • No road that will trigger erosion or landslide to the buffer zone should be constructedNo felling of harvestable trees is allowed.
  • To install guarded entrances into the main access road to prevent illegal entry of hunters.
  • All fig trees and large hollow trees should not be felled or damaged during harvesting operation.
  • Consultation with Honorary Wildlife Ranger from authorities concerned such as SFC and FDS.
  • The FMU should conduct periodic monitoring of wildlife distribution and abundance with Honorary Wildlife Rangers to identify their regular pathways or annual migration patterns and record any possible other existing saltlicks or critical feeding sites.
Management and Monitoring Recommendations for HCV 2
  • Adhered to the strict policy and management measures to delineate and protect riverine reserves as proposed by EIA and RIL.
  • No logging is allowed within the riparian buffer zone.
  • The riverine reserves and other reserve areas have to be clearly identified and mapped to ensure no encroachment.
  • Additional recommendation on protection of riverine reserves is similar to HCV 4.2.
  • Management recommendation for protection of umbrella species is similar to HCV 1.2.
  • All mapped riparian buffer zones boundaries should also be clearly marked on the ground in active coupes.
  • Conduct both IECA and EECA on water quality and other observations based on recommendation in the approved EIA.
  • Monitoring recommendation for protection of umbrella species is similar to HCV 1.2.
Management and Monitoring Recommendations for HCV 3
  • Identified coupes with low stand and allowed for regeneration to ensure sustainable production.
  • Harvesting operation should adhere strictly to RIL Guidelines.
  • Production should not exceed Annual Allowable Cut (AAC) to ensure sustainable yield and forest regeneration.
  • Construction of new roads must be controlled and properly planned to reduce further lost of forest areas.
  • Recommended that forest patches, corridors along new/old skid trails and areas with less mature trees for enrichment planting.
  • Mother trees or deformed trees with no commercial value should not be harvested or damaged to enable regeneration.
  • To work with relevant government agencies such as SFC and FDS to carry out further assessment on the condition of the forest.
  • Analyze growth production model on Potential Crop Trees (PCT) to ensure sufficient regeneration for next harvesting cycle.
  • Conduct internal audit to ensure compliance to the management prescription and prevent excessive harvesting on a single coupe.
Management and Monitoring Recommendations for HCV 4.1
  • Harvesting development should follow the RIL guideline.
  • The Terrain Class IV map should also be made available at the contractor’s camp.
  • No tractor based logging should be done in these areas.
  • Periodic auditing and documentation of Class IV Terrain prior to the submission of DP for PEC should be done.
Management and Monitoring Recommendations for HCV 4.2
  • Road construction is the biggest threat to the function of riverine reserves as potential contributors to soil erosion and sedimentation.
  • The FMU should adhere to the guidelines in the approval conditions as stipulated in EIA, RIL, Forest Rules and Forest Ordinance to reduce soil erosion.
  • Any encroachment found in the riverine reserve area shall report to relevant authorities such as FDS.
  • To conduct awareness program for workers on the importance of riverine reserve conservation.
  • Conducted periodic monitoring of water qualities such as IECA and EECA.
  • Develop and incorporate a physical monitoring programme for their riverine reserves by establish stream buffer zone reserve (SBR).
Management and Monitoring Recommendations for HCV 4.3
  • Engage their neighboring land owners and government agencies such as FDS for any information pertaining to any identified adjacent HCVs in the future.