Road construction during and after timber harvesting is the main contributor impacts to the environment. The planning of roads and harvesting systems are to ensure that:
- Roads are constructed in an orderly manner and in accordance with the road standard.
- The density of roads and skid trails are sufficiently constructed to minimize impacts on the environment.
- Optimal access to the forest areas for timber harvesting and to suit the harvesting system.
- Safety during the timber harvesting, timber trucking, and other general road uses.
Logging roads to be planned and constructed by the FMU can be classified into 3 categories as follows:-
- Main roads traverse the whole extent of the FMU and connect to public road system or log pond. Main roads built should be gravel-surfaced and designed for usage by heavy logging trucks during the entire duration of the license of the FMU.
- Secondary roads are branches of the main roads that will provide access to the forest areas to be harvested. They should preferably be gravel-surfaced roads and designed for heavy logging trucks at moderate speed.
- Feeder roads are short roads accessing the harvesting blocks to reduce skidding distances. They shall be used for a few months only and need not be all weather roads. They should be designed for the same type of trucks to be used on secondary and main roads.
- The construction and maintenance of roads, drainage structures and bridges in accordance with the Guidelines for Forest Road Layout.
- Planning procedure to follow strictly the approved General Harvesting Plan (GP) and Detailed Harvesting Plan (DP) for long-term economic benefit of the FMU.
- Demarcation of all boundaries such as licence, FMU, coupe, block, area for protection and conservation to be carried out before pre- felling inspection.
- Tree tagging of 100% enumeration for harvestable trees, protected trees, potential crop trees, mother trees, seed fruit trees and nesting trees respectively to be done.
- The Reduced Impact Logging (RIL) practice would involve pre-harvesting, harvesting and post harvesting planning and related activities.
- The monitoring and control of pre-harvesting, harvesting and post harvesting within the FMU is executed by Forestry Agencies.