Chapter 5: Harvesting

Pre-Harvesting Activities

The main objective of Pre-Felling Activities is to ensure harvesting is done in an orderly manner in accordance with the FMP and all regulations of forest authority are met.  The ground planning can commence after the General Harvesting Plan (GP) and Detailed Harvesting Plan (DP) has been approved includes the following components:

Infrastructure Development.  Construction of roads, drainage structures and bridges shall follow the procedures and standard outlined in the Guidelines for Forest Road Layout and Construction.

Demarcation of Coupe and Block Boundaries.  Upon granted with PEC, all coupe and block boundaries to be demarcated before applying for Pre-felling inspection.

Operational Inventory.  100% tree enumeration shall be conducted for all logging blocks to be harvested.

Tree Marking.  Tree marking shall follow the RIL guideline.  All trees to be felled shall be marked with white tag.  Only trees with sound merchantable bole, with a minimum diameter of 30 cm (DBH) shall be marked.  The PCT will be marked with orange tag whereas PT, SFT and MT will be tagged with blue colour.

Location of Landings.  Each block will have an individual map to show locations of landings which will be marked on the ground and constructed as per plan.  The landings shall be spaced to maintain skidding distance to less than 1,000 m.

Alignment and Marking of Main Skid Trails.  Marking of skid trials shall be in accordance with the Guidelines/ Procedures for Reduced and Low Impact Harvesting Systems.  Skid trails to be marked with a double band of white paint or red and white plastic tagging.

Monitoring and Control by Forest Department Sarawak (FDS).  Monitoring of the harvesting activities by FDS will be done through issuance of PEC.  Once the PEC has been given, the FMU holder will do the following operations:-

  • Cut, demarcate and survey coupe boundaries
  • Preparation of topographical work map according to Land and Survey Department T735 series.
  • Alignment and survey of proposed road on the ground.
  • Start road construction as planned on the map approved, demarcate & survey logging blocks boundaries and carry out tree enumeration.

Monitoring and Control by FMU Holder.  The FMU holder shall ensure that all employees, contractors and their employees comply with the management prescriptions of the FMP.  All employees, contractors and their employees should be conversant with the relevant prescriptions under their jurisdiction. 

Harvesting Operations

All harvesting operations conducted in the FMU shall strictly follow the RIL Guidelines in timber operation.  When planning for harvesting operations, the followings should take into consideration:

Training of Forest Workers.  The FMU should ensure that workers involved in the operations are competently trained in accordance with the Section 51 of the Forest Ordinance, 2015.

Tree Felling.  Adopted directional felling technique to minimal the damages to the forest in accordance with Guidelines/Procedures for Reduced and Low Impact Harvesting Systems and conform to the safety requirements stated in the Guidelines on Occupational Safety and Health in Logging Operations (2004).

Harvesting System.  The ground based harvesting system is applied through the use of modified winched excavators and bulldozers or any ground machinery which deemed suitable.  This is in accordance with the application of Reduced Impact Logging techniques for more environment-friendly approach. 

Monitoring of Harvesting Operation by FMU Holder.  To ensure that forest operation is conducted according to the prescribed guidelines given by the FDS,

Measurement, Royalty Marking and Tagging of Logs.  All harvested logs are traceable and verifiable through Chain of Custody (COC).  .  In addition, DF Circular No. 1/2014 dated 12 May 2014 requires that:-

  • All logs shall be properly tagged at both ends with the approved Log production Identity (LPI) tags and registered in the Log Tracking System (LOTS) data base as Daily Production Return (DPR) at the felling sites;
  • LPI number  and DPR, therefore, shall form part of the “Statement” in Rule 22 (1) of the Forest Rules;
  • In addition, all logs removed from the licence area to the places of  royalty marking situated outside licence area must be accompanied with original copy of DPR specification to prove that the logs have been registered in LOTS;
  • Non-compliance with the practice shall constitute a forest offence under the Forest Rules;
  • The aforesaid document must be made available upon request by the authority for the purpose of inspection, auditing and enforcement; and

Closing of Coupe.  Coupe closure shall commence after all trees marked for harvesting has been extracted for nine months. 

Post-Harvesting Activities

Post-harvesting activities will be carried out after post-logging inspection, according to the guidelines in Item 2.10 of the Guidelines/ Procedures for Reduced and Low Impact Harvesting Systems.

Post-harvest activities include the installation of cross drains and sedimentation or silt traps and 10% sampling of post-logging assessment that including logging damage assessment and enumeration for the residue stands to established the silviculture or mosaic planting methods for enrichment planting where necessary.

Post-F Inventory.  Post-F Inventory will be done to determine the residual trees that are left behind after harvesting.  These are mainly potential crop trees.

Enrichment Planting.  Based on information obtained from Post-F Inventory, enrichment planting may be done in areas where timber stocking is low.

After the completion of post-harvesting activities, a final inspection of the harvested blocks shall be conducted before post-logging block inspection by Forest Department for the issuance of coupe clearance certificate.